Touré F. Reed is a Professor of 20th Century US and Afro-American History at Illinois State University. He has published in the Journal of American Ethnic History, LABOR, Nonsite.org, Jacobin, The Nation, and The New Republic. Dr. Reed is the author of Not Alms But Opportunity: The Urban League and the Politics of Racial Uplift, 1910-1950 (UNC Press) and Toward Freedom: The Case Against Race Reductionism (Verso Books).
A military order, the Emancipation Proclamation, did not formally end slavery. Chattel slavery was formally abolished in the United States via democratic process, by the 13th Amendment.
June 21, 2022