China outlines ten programs for energy efficiency
According to the especial plan for medium-and-long-term energy conservation for the 11th five-year period (2006-10), China will set its focus of energy saving in the industrial sector, transportation and construction industries, as well as commercial and civil power use, said official with the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) recently.
The plan was made according to China's potential in energy saving and its future energy demand.
In the industrial sector, efforts will be focused on the highly-consuming industries such as power, iron and steel, nonferrous metal, oil and petrochemistry, chemistry, construction material, coal and machinery. In transportation, the newly-emerging vehicles are the focal point while strictly enforcing the standards of energy-efficiency design is the key in construction industry. Commercial and civil energy conservation mainly relies on the improvement of the power efficiency of the equipment.
Ten programs have been planned for energy efficiency in the 11th five-year period.
Upgrade coal-burning industrial boilers (kilns)
China is now using 500, 000 medium-sized and small boilers, which averagely have a capacity of only 2.5 ton per hour and a designed efficiency of 72 to 80 percent and an actual efficiency around 65 percent. 90 percent of them are coal-burning with an annual consumption of 350 to 400 million tons, in which 70 million tons can be saved.
Three measures are planned: use quality coal, selecting lump coal, sulphur fixed coal; renovate medium-sized and small boilers (kilns) with advanced techniques such as circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and pulverized coal firing; establish scientific management and operation system.
Through these measures, it is expected that the efficiency of coal-burning boilers and kilns be raised by five and two percentage points, with 25 million and 10 million tons saved respectively.
Through combined heat and power (CHP) systems (also known as cogeneration), heat efficiency can be raised by 30 percent as compared to separated generation. Centralized heat supply is 50-percent more efficient than small boilers.
In the 11th five-year period, the focus will be on the heat load of heating.
Measures to be taken are: install 300, 000-kilowatt highly efficient environment-friendly cogeneration units mainly in the areas with concentrated heat load or with relatively bigger potential for development; construct back-pressure units, mostly thermal power, mainly in the areas featuring industrial heat load, according to the local conditions; first develop centralized heat supply in the areas whose heat demand is mainly for warming and is relatively small in amount, and later develop cogeneration when the conditions are available; in medium-sized and small cities, construct, mainly based on CFB, combined supply of heat, electricity and gas, and distributed cogeneration and combined heat-power-cooling supply with clean fuels; transform existent coal-burning small boilers for decentralized heat supply.
The goal is, by 2010, coverage of urban centralized heat supply 27 percent in 2002, raised to 40 percent; 40 million kilowatts of cogeneration units for heating be added and 35 million tons of standard coal saved.
Make use of exhaust heat and pressure
Iron and steel enterprises will apply coke dry quenching (CDQ) and power generation through the pressure difference in blast furnace, renovate all blast furnace gas power generation and implement converter gas recovery in the 11th five-year period, saving 2.66 million tons of standard coal; install each year 30 sets of medium-and-low-temperature exhaust-heat power generation equipment in concrete production lines with a daily yield of 2, 000 tons; through exploiting ground coalbed gas (CBG), extracting and draining gas in ground mined-out areas, discarded mines and below the grand surface, realize an annual gas application of one billion cubic meters, which is equivalent to saving 1.35 million tons of standard coal.
Save and replace petroleum
Specific steps are: replace fuel oil (light oil) with clean coal, petroleum coke and natural gas in the industries of power, petroleum and petrochemistry, metallurgy, construction material, chemistry and transportation, speed up west-east power transmission and replace oil-burning small units; implement regulations on fuel use and associated policies and rules, take various measures to save petroleum; carry out the operation plan on clean automobiles, promote mixed-motor vehicles, popularize gas-burning buses and taxis in cities and speed up promoting methanol and alcohol as fuels, step up coal-liquefaction project and develop alternative fuels. 38 million tons of petroleum can be saved or replaced.
Energy conservation in electrical motors
Currently, the totally 420-million-kw electrical motors, which consume 60 percent of the country's total, are running with an efficiency 10 to 30 percent lower than that in foreign countries.
In the 11th five-year period, the country will popularize highly efficient electrical motors and
those applying rare earth permanent magnets; launch systematic optimization and renovation of high-efficiency wind turbines, pumps and compressors, promote the technologies of speed-adjustable of frequency conversion and automated system control, to enhance the efficiency by two percentage points and save 20 billion kilowatt-hours of power per year.
Optimization energy system
Launch optimization of energy system in major industries, i.e. through system optimization design, technical renovation and improved management, realize an efficiency at the highest level or close to the world's front-runners. It will be initiated mainly in metallurgical industry, petrochemical industry, chemical industry etc. for lower energy use and higher competitiveness in enterprises.
Energy conservation in buildings
The country will strictly adopt the standard that energy to be saved by 50 percent in residential buildings and public structures: speed up the reform in heat-supply system, tighten efforts in promoting building energy efficiency technology and related products. 50 million tons of standard coal can be saved through the measures above. Meanwhile, existent buildings will be renovated in the northern regions in need of heating and more such efforts will be made in existent hotels.
13 percent of the total power use of the country is in lighting. 70 to 80 percent of power can be saved by replacing ordinary candescent lamp with high-efficiency energy-saving fluorescent lamp and 20 to 30 percent can be saved by replacing traditional electromagnetic ballast with electronic ballast, 90 percent of power use in traffic light can be saved by replacing candescent lamp with light emitting diode (LED).
The stress will be put on promoting high-efficiency lighting system and rare-earth three-primary color phosphor in public facilities, hotels, shopping centers, office buildings, sports venues, and in automation renovation for production and assembly lines of high-efficiency electronic appliances. 29 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity can be saved.
Energy conservation in governmental departments
Governmental institutions (including those supported by public finance) have seen fast-growing energy consumption and relatively high expenditure on energy.
The focal points are: reconstruct the buildings as well as heating, air-conditioning and lighting systems- 20 percent of the total construction area is subject to renovation according to building energy efficiency standard; promote high-efficiency products and include them into the list of governmental procurement; make reform in business cars and set an example in purchasing low-oil-consuming vehicles; state organs take pilot efforts to save energy by 10 percent per unit construction area and per capita compared to the year of 2002.
Build monitoring and technical service system
The country will boost the capability of the energy saving monitoring centers of provincial level or in major energy-consuming industries, through upgrading monitoring equipment, strengthening personnel training and popularizing contractual energy management. It will also monitor and manage energy conversation by law. The already-mentioned centers are supposed grow capable of providing package services including diagnosis, design, financing, renovation, operation and management, for enterprises, governmental organs and schools.
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